Порядок слов в английском повествовательном предложении, притяжательные местоимения, сравнительные обороты, правила согласования времен. Настоящее учебно-методическое пособие построено на традиционных принципах методики и предназначено для студентов заочных отделений экономических вузов и факультетов, специализирующихся в области маркетинга и менеджмента, а также для широкого круга специалистов-экономистов, изучающих английский язык.
Основная цель данного пособия - сформировать у обучающихся умение читать и переводить оригинальную литературу по специальности и познакомить с вопросами управления и маркетинга в Англии и США. Тексты уроков подобраны из оригинальных источников.Экономическая статья на английском с переводом
Territorial and administrative division of government in the united kingdom. Glad to meet you! Listen to the speaker; read and memorize the following words and phrases: Economics, social science concerned with the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of goods and services. Economists focus on the way in which individuals, groups, business enterprises, and governments seek to achieve efficiently any economic objective they select.
Other fields of study also contribute to this knowledge: Psychology and ethics try to explain how objectives are formed; history records changes in human objectives; sociology interprets human behavior in social contexts. Standard economics can be divided into two major fields. The first, price theory or microeconomics, explains how the interplay of supply and demand in competitive markets creates a multitude of individual prices, wage rates, profit margins, and rental changes. Microeconomics assumes that people behave rationally.
Consumers try to spend their income in ways that give them as much pleasure as possible. As economists say, they maximize utility.U.S. Economy статья по экономике на английском языке скачать бесплатно США economic журнал экономическая статья United States markets higher industry price sell The of production international wages May business to
For their part, entrepreneurs seek as much profit as they can extract from their operations. The second field, macroeconomics, deals with modern explanations of national income and employment. Macroeconomics dates from the book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Moneyby the British economist John Maynard Keynes.
His explanation of prosperity and depression centers on the total or aggregate demand for goods and services by consumers, business investors, and governments. Because, according to Keynes, inadequate aggregate demand increases unemployment, the indicated cure is either more investment by businesses or more spending and consequently larger budget deficits by government.
Economists note that there is no limit to the amount or kinds of things that people want. In addition to buyers and sellers, there are several other essential elements in a market economy.
There are many buyers and sellers so that no individual or group can control prices. There are two ways to earn income: Macroeconomics is the study of the economy as a whole, microeconomics is the study of individual consumers and the business firm.
Each factor of production has a place in our economic system, and each has a particular function. A budget is a financial plan that summarizes income and expenditures over a period of time. The United States government also employs economists to study economic problems and to suggest ways to solve them. I find television very educating. Every time somebody turns on the set, I go to the other room and read a book.
London Englandcity in southeastern England, capital of Great Britain, at the head of the Thames estuary, west of its mouth on the North Sea. In popular and traditional usage, the term City of London, or the City, is applied only to a small area 2.
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The City of London and 32 surrounding boroughs form the Greater London metropolitan area, which has an area of sq km sq mi. The London Government Act authorized the creation of a two-tiered government consisting of 32 borough councils and the Greater London Council. The borough councils are locally elected and are responsible for local functions. Until its abolition inthe Greater London Council administered broad functions for the metropolitan area as a whole, such as overall planning, the coordination of transportation systems, and the management of parks.
The council comprised councilors, locally elected, and 15 aldermen, elected by the councilors. The historic Corporation of the City of London is equivalent in function to a borough council.
Since the reign of King John in the 13 th century, citizens of the City of London have had the right to elect their own mayor. The corporation government is composed of the Lord mayor, who is elected annually by members of the livery companies guilds ; 25 aldermen, who are elected for life; and council members, who are elected annually from 25 wards.
Порядок слов в английском повествовательном предложении. A Market, or free enterprise economy is one in which the decisions of many individual buyers and sellers interact to determine the answers to the questions of What, How and Who. One of these is private property. Although markets exist in traditional and command economies, the major means of productions firms, factories, farms, mines, etc.
That is, they are owned by groups of people or by the government. In a market economy the means of production are owned by private individuals. Private ownership gives people the incentive to use their property to produce things that will sell and earn them a profit. This desire to earn profit is a second ingredient in market economy. Often referred to as the profit motive, it provides the fuel that drives sellers to produce the things that buyers want, and at a price they are willing to pay.
The profit motive also gives sellers the incentive to produce at the lowest possible cost. Because lower costs enable them to 1 increase their profit margins, the difference between cost and selling price, or 2 reduce prices to undersell during the competition, or 3 both.
Economists often compare markets to polling booths. However, unlike the booths in which people vote for politicians, markets provide a kind of economic polling booth for buyers to cast their votes in the form of purchases for the goods and services they want. Producers who interpret the votes correctly by producing the things that buyers demand can earn profits. Those who interpret the voting incorrectly, producing too much or too little, or charging a price that is too high or too low, do not earn profits.
In fact, they often lose money. Consumer votes can be a matter of life and death to business in a market economy. Why does the profit motive give sellers the incentive to produce at the lowest possible cost?
What is the difference? Keynes, John Maynard, 1 st Baron Keynes of TiltonBritish economist. Keynes was born in Cambridge, England, and educated at Eton College and the University of Cambridge.
He began his career in the India Office of the British government and wrote a highly regarded book, Indian Currency and Finance During World War I he worked in the treasury, which he represented at the Paris Peace Conference During the next decade he made a fortune speculating in international currencies, taught at Cambridge, and wrote Treatise on Probabilitya mathematical work, and A Treatise on Money In the latter, he sought to explain why an economy operates so unevenly, with frequent cycles of booms and depressions.
Keynes closely examined the problem of prolonged depression in his major work, The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money This book, which provided a theoretical defense for programs that were already being tried in Great Britain and by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the U. It stated that unused savings prolonged economic stagnation and that business investment was spurred by new inventions, new markets, and other influences not related to the interest rate on savings.
Keynes proposed that government spending must compensate for insufficient business investment in times of recession. In he was made a baron, and two years later he headed the British delegation to the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, the Bretton Woods Conference.
There he promoted establishment of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the International Monetary Fund. Read the sentences given below. Mind the stress and intonation in them: Marketing, activities involved in getting goods from the producer to the consumer. The producer is responsible for the design and manufacture of goods.
Early marketing techniques followed production and were responsible only for moving goods from the manufacturer to the point of final sale. Now, however, marketing is much more pervasive. In large corporations the marketing functions precede the manufacture of a product. They involve market research and product development, design, and testing.
Marketing concentrates primarily on the buyers, or consumers, determining their needs and desires, educating them with regard to the availability of products and to important product features, developing strategies to persuade them to buy, and, finally, enhancing their satisfaction with a purchase.
Marketing management includes planning, organizing, directing, and controlling decision making regarding product lines, pricing, promotion, and servicing. In most of these areas marketing has complete control; in others, as in product-line development, its function is primarily advisory. In addition, the marketing department of a business firm is responsible for the physical distribution of the products, determining the channels of distribution that will be used and supervising the profitable flow of goods from the factory or warehouse.The money that workers pay into the Social Security system does not go into individual savings accounts for those workers. When banks and savers anticipate higher inflation, they will try to protect themselves by demanding higher interest rates on loans and savings accounts. Over the same period, families in the lowest 20 percent of income groups have experienced a decline from 5. Краткий англо-русский экономический словарь с транскрипцией. Once market prices for various goods and services are set, consumers are free to choose what to buy, and producers are free to choose what to produce and sell. On May 8, President Yeltsin signed a decree making additional improvements in Russian tax rules. The economy is complicated and difficult to control and predict, but it is certainly important to all businesses. Overall employment in the industry is sure to decline as small farms are consolidated into large farms and technology further reduces the need for farm labour.
Activities involved in getting goods; is responsible for the design; early marketing techniques; to the point of final stage; is much more pervasive; in large corporations; precede the manufacture of a product; testing; with regard to the availability of product; enhancing their satisfaction with a purchase; marketing management; regarding product lines; promotion; its function is primarily advisory; the marketing department; physical distribution; the profitable flow of goods.
Put the verbs in brackets in the Past Indefinite Tense and translate the sentences: Aristotle and Plato in ancient Greece to write about problems of wealth, property, and trade. The Romans to borrow their economic ideas from the Greeks and to show the same contempt for trade. In ancient and medieval times dire scarcity of resources to be common and to affect the lives of most human beings.
The Second development to be the expansion of production that to follow the Industrial Revolution. As business to become more competitive, new and more complex corporate combinations to come on the scene.
During World War II the government of Germany utilized domestic cartels to produce armaments. What date is it today? It was warm yesterday. The place to begin is with the product itself. A business must determine what kind of product potential customers want. Companies employ very complex market research techniques to find out. The product warranty card that you return after a purchase provides marketing information too.